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    Last updated September 9, 2023

    This page allows you to search a Sanskrit term across most of the dictionaries available online, all at once. You can input terms in the International Alphabet for Sanskrit Transliteration or in the Velthuis encoding scheme. See below for more details on input conventions.

    The available dictionaries are given in the table below.

    Year Name Language
    1832 Wilson Sanskrit-English Dictionary en
    1846 Yates Sanskrit-English Dictionary en
    1847 Bopp Glossarium Sanscritum la
    1855 Böhtlingk and Roth Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch de
    1856 Goldstücker Sanskrit-English Dictionary en
    1861 Abhidhānaratnamālā of Halāyudha sa
    1866 Benfey Sanskrit-English Dictionary en
    1866 Burnouf Dictionnaire Sanscrit-Français fr
    1872 Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary (1st ed.) en
    1873 Vācaspatyam sa
    1873 Grassmann Wörterbuch zum Rig Veda de
    1879 Böhtlingk Sanskrit-Wörterbuch in kürzerer Fassung de
    1884 Bergaigne Études sur le lexique du Ṛgveda fr
    1884 Lanman’s Sanskrit Reader Vocabulary en
    1885 Whitney Roots en
    1886 Śabdakalpadruma sa
    1887 Cappeller Sanskrit Wörterbuch de
    1890 Apte Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary en
    1891 Cappeller Sanskrit-English Dictionary en
    1893 Macdonell Sanskrit-English Dictionary en
    1899 Monier-Williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary (2nd ed.) en
    1900 Śabdasāgara Sanskrit-English Dictionary en
    1904 Index to the Names in the Mahābhārata en
    1906 Caland & Henry Termes techniques de l’Agniṣṭoma fr
    1912 The Vedic Index of Names and Subjects en
    1928 Schmidt Nachträge zum Sanskrit-Wörterbuch de
    1932 Stchoupak Dictionnaire Sanscrit-Français fr
    1951 The Purāṇa Index en
    1953 Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary en
    1954 Renou Vocabulaire du rituel védique fr
    1957 Renou Terminologie grammaticale du Sanskrit fr
    1958 Renou Études sur le vocabulaire du Ṛgveda fr
    1959 Apte Enlarged Practical Sanskrit-English Dictionary en
    1962 Aufrecht’s Catalogus Catalogorum en
    1965 Kṛdantarūpamālā sa
    1966 Indian Epigraphical Glossary en
    1974 Meulenbeld’s Sanskrit Names of Plants en
    1975 Puranic Encyclopedia en
    1978 Personal and Geographical Names in the Gupta Inscriptions en
    1993 Mahābhārata Cultural Index en
    2000 Tāntrikābhidhānakośa fr/en/de

    Input Conventions

    Here is how to input each phoneme:

    अ a ' आ ā aa इ i ई ī ii उ u ऊ ū uu
    ऋ ṛ r̥ .r ॠ ṝ r̥̄ .rr ऌ ḷ l̥ .l ॡ ḹ l̥̄ .ll
    ए e ऐ ai ओ o औ au
    अं ṃ ṁ .m अः ḥ .h
    क k ख kh ग g घ gh ङ ṅ f "n
    च c छ ch ज j झ jh ञ ñ ~n
    ट ṭ .t ठ ṭh .th ड ḍ .d ढ ḍh .dh ण ṇ .n
    त t थ th द d ध dh न n  
    प p फ ph ब b भ bh म m
    य y र r ल l व v
    श ś z ष ṣ .s स s ह h
    ळ ḻ ł _l

    To represent a hiatus, either follow the convention of adding a diaeresis to the second vowel—as in praüga—or insert a space character between the two vowels—as in pra uga.


    At the top of dictionary entries, immediately after the headword, you are often given a list of terms that might be the same as the one you looked for, or that might be related to it, grammatically speaking. For instance, within the entry gandharva, you will find links to the entries gandharbba, gandharvaḥ, gandharvva, gandharvvaḥ and gaṃdharvaḥ.

    These clusters of terms are generated mechanically through a set of rules, and can thus be inaccurate. Some cases are inherently ambiguous. For instance, a term that ends with might either be a stem or the nominative masculine singular of a term that ends with -in. I am experimenting with machine learning to address these issues, but much work remains to be done. The end goal is to make this aggregation process transparent.

    As a general rule, when searching for nouns and adjectives, you should input the stem instead of a declined form, and then follow cross-references, if any. If the term you are looking for does not appear as a stem in any of the available dictionaries, you will still probably find it among suggested approximate matches.

    Browsing through Terms

    It is sometimes useful to browse through terms. You can jump to a given location in the dictionaries lexicon by typing the hash symbol # in the search field, followed by a few characters. While doing so, you will be presented with a list of terms that start with the prefix you typed so far. This autocomplete feature is currently only available for romanized input.

    Confirming the query will bring you to the first term that starts with the prefix you typed, or, if there is none, to the closest term that follows it, lexicographically speaking. Try for instance the query #uddhār. Submitting the query # just brings you to the very beginning of the lexicon.

    Advanced Search

    It is possible to find terms that match a pattern by using wildcard characters. The question mark character ? matches a single phoneme; the star character * matches a sequence of zero or more phonemes. Thus, for instance:

    Note that matching is performed at the phoneme level, not at the character level. Thus a?i matches abhi, but ab?i does not match it, since bh represents a single phoneme.

    It is also possible to find terms through approximate matching—sometimes called ‘fuzzy matching.’ The metric used for comparing strings is the Levenshtein distance. This matching mode is enabled by appending a tilde ~ at the end of the search string. The query mandra~, for instance, returns terms like mandra, maṃdra, madra, mantra, etc.

    Approximate matching can be performed with wildcard patterns, not just string literals. This is particularly useful for finding occurrences of a given term within compounds, where sandhi can occur. The query *uddyota~, for instance, matches terms that end with something close to uddyota, and returns, among else, uddyota, śāntyuddyota, ācāroddyota, udyota, etc.


    Most of the above dictionaries were prepared and encoded by Jim Funderburk, Thomas Malten et al. at Cologne University. The textual version of Whitney’s Roots comes from Peter Scharf, with some emendations of my own. The enlarged edition of Apte’s dictionary is derived from the data prepared at the University of Chicago.

    I prepared indices for the following dictionaries: